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How Dubai is integrating AI into everyday life. University blockchain experiment aims for top marks. The business of Ramadan: When religion and capital converge in the UAE. Why Dubai is all in on drones. Why Dubai is hungry for food delivery apps. Dubai's appetite for gold. Dubai's space ambitions take flight. Is blockchain the future for trade? Friends may call Friday, Aug. Interment will follow at Glen Rest Memorial Estate. Bob Mathias delivering prayers.

Then, friends and family are invited back to the church for lunch and a sharing of memories. Cotner Funeral Home, E. Box , Columbus, Ohio Messages may be sent to Jim's family by visiting cotnerfuneralhome. A lifetime Delaware resident, ED worked at Ranco Controls for 21 years and started a real estate business in Having a passion for work, ED also enjoyed working for his community and supporting local high school athletics.

The family will receive friends on Wednesday, Aug. Burial will follow in Oak Grove Cemetery. The women of the Eastside Mission Church will then host a reception at the church immediately following the graveside services. To share a fond memory of ED or to offer a condolence to his family, please visit www. Interment to follow at Union Cemetery. Bill is survived by his loving and devoted Nanci; son, William Jr.

Frank Luchsinger and Fr. Remy , age 92, passed away on Friday, July 6, Philip David Holdrieth , age 84, passed away peacefully on Wednesday, July 4, He was a U. Navy veteran, where he achieved the rank of Lieutenant, enjoyed a wide genre of reading, nature, fine dining, and travel, most especially his beloved Caribbean.

Private burial to be held later. For all those who wish, you are more than welcome to wear Scarlet and Grey to services. In lieu of flowers, charitable opportunities lie before you every day, "Get on it". Michael studied photography and became an award-winning photographer, operating his own studio for several years, taking portraits and photographing many weddings. He then transitioned into real estate and soon became a successful broker, pursuing this for over 50 years.

A memorial gathering will be held on Friday, July 13, , from a at the Pfeifer Funeral Home, Reynoldsburg, where his service will immediately follow at 11a, with Rev. Online condolences available at pfeiferfuneral.

In addition to his parents, Chuck was preceded in death by his brother, Howard. His passion for affordable housing, community redevelopment, and commercial real estate was realized through his company Adrian, Inc.

He was a loyal Mason, avid golfer, and author. His lifelong passion for learning about history and religion inspired him to travel around the world. The family will receive friends at the funeral home from pm Friday, July 6, Burial will follow at Union Cemetery. In lieu of flowers memorial contributions may be made to Homes for our Troops.

Emily enjoyed a successful and varied career as an employment recruiter, real estate agent and real estate developer. When she wasn't involved in her career, or raising children, she enjoyed auctions, estate and garage sales for the pursuit of that diamond in the rough. Emily was very generous with her time and resources, having donated to various animal charities; as well as involvement with The Assistance League of Central Ohio and the Columbus Grief Group.

Following cremation, her ashes will be interred with her parents in Ocala, Florida. To read full obit visit shaw-davis. He obtained his real estate license in and formed Denkowski Real Estate in Kathie , Charles Cordula , and Felix Denkowski. Family and friends will be celebrating his life from pm Saturday, June 30, , at Xenos Christian Fellowship in the study center auditorium, Community Park Dr.

Freddie Leron Lane, age 83, passed away Saturday, June 9, , surrounded by family. He was also an excellent athlete, especially enjoying golf, bowling, and fishing. Freddie is survived by his wife, Mary L. His memorial service will be held 5: He founded the real estate firm that still carries his name, Roger C. He graduated from Ohio State University in , the day before marrying Janet, and was driven by an indefatigable work ethic his entire life.

He was also an ad-man for Leo Burnett in Chicago; a business consultant for the U. Navy and the American Helicopter Pilots Association. Traveling was a lifelong passion and he visited every continent except Antarctica, traveling by train, bus, ship, rickshaw and, once, in a tiny pea-shaped boat down the Shennong Stream of China.

By his request, donations can be made to Habitat for Humanity , habitat. Schmidt , age 77, of Westerville, passed away Friday, June 1, Following Roger's wishes, cremation has taken place and a memorial service will be held at a later date. Bennie was fortunate to also have had and is survived by a host of aunts, nephews, nieces, cousins and friends. Karen was an active member of the New Hope Church in Powell.

A celebration of her life is planned for family members at a reunion in Myrtle Beach, SC in July and another celebration is being planned in September for family, friends and business associates in Columbus, Ohio. Helen is survived by all six of her children as well as by eight grandchildren and twelve great-grandchildren. She was a kind, loving woman of great integrity who lived long and well and who will be missed by the many people whose lives she touched.

In lieu of flowers, Helen asked only that Catholic Mass Intentions be offered in her name. Bob was one of the first members of SIOR, served on the Columbus Board of Zoning, and enjoyed mentoring many future real estate professionals. He also enjoyed spending winters in Naples, Florida and summer weekends boating at Lake Erie.

Mass of Christian Burial will be held at Marilyn Witherup , age 77, of Pickerington, passed away Wednesday, April 18, Marilyn is survived by her husband of 61 years, Larry F. Witherup; children, Larry A. Thomas "Tom" Augustus , age 88, died peacefully on Thursday, April 12, He sold houses to generations of Westerville residents for 50 years.

He was a member of St. Paul's Church for 62 years, a member of the Knights of Columbus, and a founding member and past president of the Westerville Sertoma Club. He also leaves behind many friends from St. Paul's Church and Westerville. Paul's Church, N. The family will receive family and friends two hours prior to the Mass at the Church.

Arrangements will be handled by Moreland Funeral Home. Private interment will be held at a later date. Shockey , age 84, passed away peacefully at her home on Thursday, April 12, She enjoyed a long career in real estate founding the Marian L. A lifelong New Albany resident, she served as city council member and president during the busy transition years from Village to the beautiful City it's become.

She is survived by her husband of 67 years John D. Shockey, son Brad Barb Shockey, son-in-law Scott Clark, five grandchildren, two great grandchildren, two sisters and one brother. Family will receive friends from Wednesday. Funeral Services Thursday 10a.

Both services held in Schoedinger Northeast, E. Joe Crites , age 67, passed away Thursday, April 5, , while attempting to rescue the family dog from the Olentangy River. His life consisted of giving time for everything from coaching football, baseball and softball to caring for both parents in their time of need.

Joe was an avid outdoorsman and spent much of the last several years in the woods on his property in Morgan County. He was always with his two best friends, our son Kenny and our chocolate lab, Brookie, whom he gave his life to save.

And, of course, his beloved dog, Brookie. Friends may call p. A Funeral Mass will be held Wednesday April 11 at St. Andrew Church, McCoy Road. King , age 73 of Marengo, Ohio, passed away surrounded by his family on Wednesday, March 28, , after a long battle with cancer.

Gary had a lifelong love of horses beginning with 4-H, horse show competition, show judging, and harness and thoroughbred racing. He also enjoyed collecting toy tractors and had an extensive collection. Calling hours will be held Thursday, April 5, , p.

Memorial service will follow the calling hours and will be officiated by Pastor Wayne Booth. Graveside services will take place Friday, April 6, at 10 a. To share a fond memory or to leave a message of condolence please visit www. Irvin Yale Lichtenstein , age 93, passed away on Wednesday, March 21, Irv enriched the lives of all who had the opportunity to know him.

He was a radio operator on a C named Suga carrying paratroopers, transporting wounded soldiers and pulling gliders in Northern France, the Ardennes and Rhineland. Returning to Columbus after the war he married his childhood sweetheart Mitzi Lee Shaucet.

Irv and Mitzi spent their entire lives living in Columbus, raising their family and were married for 69 years. He is survived by daughter, Hindi Dr. In lieu of flowers, the family suggests donations be made to the Wexner Heritage Village or the charity of one's choice.

Elmer Redd Realty Company. A lifelong sports fan, Felix coached all sports at St. A burial Mass will be held Friday morning, March 9, 10am at St. Catherine Church, South Gould Road. Father Dan Dury, celebrant. She was a resident of Reynoldsburg, Ohio at the time of passing and a former sales associate with Coldwell Banker King Thompson. Family will be receiving friends May 19, at 9a at St.

The family will have a private interment at Holy Cross Cemetery, Pataskala, immediately following service. Tom began his professional life in advertising and then went to work in banking at Ohio Federal Savings and Loan. A service will be held in the Schoedinger Chapel on Saturday, April 14, , 4 pm. Burk was Valedictorian of his class at Aquinas High School. After college, Burk enlisted in the Air Force which began his life- long passion for flying.

With his children and "family" of associates at his side, Burk created and nurtured a thriving real estate development, construction, investment and management corporation with property locations from coast to coast.

Many decades ago, Burk discovered New Mexico and Hawaii and thus began his curious attire of aloha shirts, bolo ties and cowboy hats. His stories were grand and jokes slightly rated. Burk adored his family and enjoyed sharing his interest in boating, flying, fishing, snow skiing and scuba diving with them. His summers were shared with family and friends at Bar Harbor on the shores of Lake Erie.

Box , Newark, Ohio, Woods, age 60, passed away unexpectedly on Sunday, Feb. Family will receive friends from 8: Box , Cols, Ohio Interment Franklin Hills Memory Gardens. Her greatest passion was being surrounded by her family enjoying holidays, birthdays, graduations, weddings, Ohio State football games and numerous vacations. She, also enjoyed tremendous success in the condominium conversion business, traveling throughout the U. Lois was a member of Bethel Lutheran Church.

Friends may call from p. Graveside services will follow at Glen Rest Cemetery. Bonnie began a very successful career in real estate with Century 21 that lasted for 30 years, and was a lifetime member of Westerville Church of the Messiah. She also leaves behind 9 grandchildren and 4 great-grandchildren. Her children and grandchildren were the focus of her life, with countless pool parties at her Minerva Park home and 25 years of summer vacations to Myrtle Beach, SC.

Friends may call Monday, Jan. Schrock Road, Westerville, OH Interment Blendon Central Cemetery. She was loved by all and will be dearly missed. In lieu of flowers, contributions may be made to the Alzheimer's Association of Central Ohio.

Evans , age 55, died at his home on Saturday, Jan. Mark enjoyed coaching, basketball and baseball and spent many spring and summer days at the North Newark Little League Complex. To share your memory of Mark or leave a condolence for the family, please visit www. Lacy Smith, age 56, passed away on Wednesday, Jan. Prior to his real estate career, he was a veteran Industrial Engineer with over 20 years of service at Honda of American in Marysville Ohio.

Services will be held Saturday, Jan. To leave a message of condolence, visit www. Rose was an associate with Right Move Realty. She enjoyed Notre Dame Football, family, laughter, kitchen table conversations, grandchildren, thrift stores, card games poker with family, giving to the poor, fighting for the underdog, and listing and selling other peoples' homes as her husband, Howard, did not wish to move.

Mass of Christian Burial will be Thursday Andrew Church, McCoy Rd. Private burial at Resurrection Cemetery at-a-later date. Philip Santa Emma for his support. Lamphere, age 73, of Delaware, passed away unexpectedly Saturday, Dec. She felt it was her calling to help families find a home, not just a house.

Humble and with a wonderful sense of humor, she possessed a huge heart for the underdog. She volunteered for Habitat for Humanity. Described as genuine, honest, and trustworthy, she was a member and supporter of St. Work was her hobby, but she treasured time spent at the family cabin at Boyne Falls, Michigan with her beloved Golden Retriever, Honey.

Gretchen loved Delaware, Christmas, and of course selling real-estate. She will be remembered for her generous ways, one whose door was always open, and love of family. She is survived by her children, Joseph M. Mary Lamphere of Marion, Susan M. Friends may call 4 to 8 p.

Mass of Christian Burial will be held 9: Mary Church, 82 E. Memorial contributions can be made to Habitat for Humanity, Curtis St. He was the son of William R. He met Roxanne in a class at Otterbein and, after graduation, they married.

They had two wonderful sons, Rocky and Casey and four grandchildren who adored him. Bill enjoyed bowling at Westerville Lanes as an after-school activity in junior high school.

Bowling became a lifelong passion. He joined the Professional Bowling Association and joined the tour; he competed in regional and national tournaments for over 40 years and he developed many deep friendships. Bill was an inspiration to the children he coached little league baseball, anyone that wanted to learn to bowl and a mentor to many. He was funny, optimistic and proud of his healthy lifestyle. He enjoyed the challenge of putting together creative transactions.

Bill was happy to live in Westerville, surrounded by many friends. He was a member of the Church of Messiah. When your cancer was diagnosed in June, you handled it with grace, dignity and a splash of humor.

You are missed by all your family, including nieces, nephews and cousins. Relatives from seven states travelled to attend your funeral. You left before we were ready to say goodbye. Our hearts are broken and our lives have changed forever. Acquista , age 95, passed away peacefully Sunday, Nov. Tony was very active in his parish, St. His family will receive friends p Sunday, Dec. Mass of Christian Burial will be held Pius X Church, S. Burial following at Glen Rest Memorial Estate.

Broad Street, Columbus, OH Born in Columbus on June 5, After graduating, she married her High School. A private Service will be held at a later date.

In lieu of flowers, contributions may be made to the Preservation of St. To view and sign the and sign online register. Salts , age 77, of Hilliard, passed away Sunday, Nov. Dean and his wife were the owners of S. Realty Company and he most recently was an associate with Keller Williams Consultants. Family will receive friends p. Burial will follow at Alton Cemetery. She was a sales associate with Coldwell Banker King Thompson for 14 years and a long-time member of St. She was a gentle soul who will be dearly missed by many.

A Mass of Christian Burial will be celebrated at St. In lieu of flowers, contributions may be made to Glenmary Home Missioners. Arrangements by the Schoedinger Northwest Chapel, In lieu of flowers, donations in his memory can be sent to Mt. Remembrances can be shared at www. He was also a former U. He loved to play softball and played until he was 55 years old.

He was active within the CB community known as "Chet the Jet"; loved traveling with his wife in his RV; and piloting his small Cessna airplane. Karen Yvonne Klaus , age 68, passed away Tuesday, Sept. She was a proud preacher's daughter who sang like an angel. Karen was a sales associate with R. She loved to praise the Lord and volunteer at her church.

Visitation will be held a. Box , Oklahoma City, OK Arrangements entrusted to the Schoedinger Grove City Chapel. Charles is survived by his wife, Shirley K. Dozer; sons, Charles H. Dozer Patti ; Donald W. Dozer Tonya ; and Jonathan D.

James ; sister-in-law, Patricia Barnhart; and numerous nieces and nephews. Family will receive friends on Wednesday Sept. Interment will be at Glen Rest Memorial Cemetery following the service. One of Charles' favorite memories was visiting Curtis Michigan and spending time with The Hamrick's while telling stories and listening to The Kingston Trio. Friends may call from and p. High Street, Columbus, OH In his memory, Bill wished that contributions be made to the following: Franklin County Animal Shelter or to your local animal shelter or any cancer organization of your choice.

Burial will be held at a later date in Monroeville, Oh. To sign and view the on-line register book please visit, www. McEnery , age 90, passed away surrounded by her family on Friday, Aug. The love and generosity Betty was known for is matched only by the legacy she leaves behind.

Betty cherished a circle of friends that spanned from Ohio to Maine to Florida to Texas and met many of them during her exceptional career in real estate. Long before it was common for women to work, Betty began as a sales agent for Donahue Realty, then quickly rose to branch manager and eventually became a VP and partner, overseeing 19 branches while raising seven children. As the owner of Sherlock Homes, she remained active in real estate until the time of her death.

Betty's strong work ethic, effortless class, lighthearted sense of humor and endless kindness endeared her to everyone she met. She made the world around her better and she will be greatly missed. Betty's family will receive friends from p.

Mass of Christian Burial and Entombment will take place at 10a. Celebrant, Reverend Michael B. They also became avid Ohio State Buckeye fans bleeding scarlet and gray, and found a love for playing Euchre and had involvement in several card groups. She was a mentor to her son Jay who followed her into real estate. Leah would be appreciative if you would donate money to the Kobacker House, or a Christian charity in lieu of flowers.

Friends and family may call Thursday, August 10, from p. A funeral service will take place Friday, August 11, at 10 a. Please visit our online guestbook at www.

The family will receive friends Monday, July 31, with service following at 6: Thomas Michael Amicon , age 64 of Dublin, Ohio, passed away on Monday, July 31, , after a valiant effort to fight pancreatic cancer and complications following a surgical procedure. He showed tremendous strength and courage over the last many months up until his last breath when the Lord called him home. He was "Uncle Tom" to more than 14 and was lucky enough to be the grandfather, the papa, the T-daddy, the grandpa to 23 grandchildren and counting.

He was simply the best! A service honoring his life will be held on Thursday, August 3, at 7 p. Box , Longmont, CO Condolences may be sent via www. Funeral service will be held at 11 a. Interment will follow at New Agudas Achim Cemetery. Shiva will be observed at the Greenberg residence. Family will receive friends pm Thursday, July 27, , at the Schoedinger Northwest Chapel, Zollinger Road where there will be a memorial service at 5pm.

Condolences may be sent to the family at www. He loved fishing and was proud of his Irish heritage. He was affectionately known as Papa Hoagie to his 11 grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. The Hickey family would like to offer their heartfelt thanks to Dr.

John Byrd and his staff at The James Cancer Hospital, for everything they did to extend Dennis' life expectancy by almost 18 years. They were years well lived! Family will welcome friends p. Mass of Christian Burial 11 a. Monday, June 19 at St. Interment to follow at Forest Lawn Memorial Gardens.

Those who wish may donate to the James Cancer Clinic, W. He graduated from University High School in Columbus, Ohio, where he excelled at football, basketball and baseball and received the nickname "Fogie". He went on to attend OSU where he also played football and became a passionate Buckeye fan for the remainder of his life. From there he went to Virginia Military Institute and was drafted in the Army and deployed to Germany. While in Germany he again played football on the Army league. That lead to a tryout offer from the Detroit Lions professional team, but by the time he got out of the Army it was too late.

He was discharged in Oct. Living many years in Lincoln Village North, near Columbus, Ohio, he raised his family and began a lucrative career in real estate in with Twink Starr Realty. He became a real estate broker in , office in New Rome, OH. They were true sons in Forrest's eyes. Forrest's outgoing personality and positive attitude was infectious. He was very funny and loved to laugh and spread joy.

Having a great smile, he made everyone around him feel welcome. Dancing was always a favorite social activity for Forrest. He lead a full and healthy life; "it was to be lived". He was a one of a kind, self made man. An amazing father, grandfather, husband, uncle and friend. Goodbye for now Fogie, we all love you very much. There will be no public services.

In his free time he enjoyed traveling and was an avid car and truck enthusiast that was always looking for his next purchase. He took great pride in his job and really enjoyed helping his clients meet their needs. Friends may call on Monday from 5 to 8 p. The family will observe a private burial. To share a memory or leave a condolence for the family, visit www.

Hawse Howard , age 78, of Lancaster, formerly of Columbus, died at her residence on Monday, May 1, Rose was quite active in the Girl Scouts of America organization starting as a troop leader and eventually becoming a Board member.

She was an amazing person who will be greatly missed by her family and friends. Smith Funeral Home, N. Family and friends may call on the family from 2 p. Online condolences can be made at www.

Funeral service Saturday, 11 a. Pastor Jason Hardin officiating. Interment Monday 1 p. Arrangements by Evans Funeral Home, E. Tackett , age 73, passed away on Sunday, April 9, at her home. Prior to her real estate career, she was a teacher at Groveport Madison High School. Funeral service will be 11 a. Pastor Mike Pratt officiating. Online condolences may be made at www.

Brad graduated from The Ohio State University. After coming to Sarasota, he was a co-founder and broker of Stevens and Salt Inc.

He leaves behind Shirley, his high school sweetheart and wife of 72 years, their three children, Bill Susan Salt, Cathy John Forman, Terri Dennis Costa, nine grandchildren and 10 great grandchildren. He was preceded in death by his brothers: Charles, David and Thomas Salt.

Funeral services will be held Thursday, March 23, 2 p. Memorial donations may be made to Tidewell Hospice.

He served as a tank mechanic with the United States Army Reserves during the Vietnam era and, for many years, he was an Oldsmobile and Chevrolet enthusiast and loved racing and restoring cars. He had a great sense of humor and was always willing to give of his time to help others when asked.

As the heart of the family, Dave cherished his wife and was so very proud of his boys. His strong work ethic and appreciation for family values were qualities many witnessed and he shared with his children and grandchildren.

To share your memory of Dave or leave a condolence for the family, please visit www. Commission and served two years as a 1st Lt. After his military service, he went to work for the Galbreath Co.

Jim was a highly-respected member of the Columbus community, having served as a member and President of the Governing Committee of the Columbus Foundation; Trustee of the John H.

McConnell Foundation; the Robert F. Jim married the love of his life, Lula Lou Mae Moeller on his birthday in They shared a wonderful life of traveling the world, golf, entertaining and family. He is survived by his daughter, Sandra Dr.

He ran two gubernatorial campaigns for James A. A visitation will be held on Saturday, March 11, from a. Details of a reception to follow at a later date. Though cork was effective, most of the early closure efforts by inventers and bottlers were directed at finding a cork substitute Graci The following three closures gravitating, Codd, Hutchinson utilized the internal pressure of the product to assist in the sealing of the bottle.

This closure was apparently first put into use in or Riley It consists of an elongated glass plug with a flared knob on one end. A rubber gasket was placed on the upper end of the knob which when placed in the bottle sealed the contents by pressing against the inside surface of the bottle at the juncture of the neck and shoulder.

The bottle was ". The illustration to the left shows the stopper separately outside and inside a typical bottle. The photo to the right shows the base of a Matthew's patent bottle with the 2.

The pictured stopper is embossed in tiny lettering with what appears to be the following: Click Matthew's stoppers for a picture of several of the glass stoppers minus the rubber sealing ring which would have been on the narrow flared "knob" end top end as shown in the picture.

These bottles were opened by pushing down on the head of the stopper to release the pressure which allowed the stopper to sink to the bottom of the bottle and the contents to be accessed. The stoppers were removable from the bottle for cleaning and reuse and to replace the gaskets as necessary.

The base of most but not likely all bottles that used this closure are embossed as follows: Click g ravitating stopper bottle base to see a close up picture of the embossing found on the base of these bottles picture is of bottle to the right.

The embossing is also shown behind the stopper in the image below. Because of this base embossing many people assume that Matthews was the patentee. However, Albert Albertson was the patentee and Matthews " Soda bottles that took this closure type are early enough that the ones noted by the author have a true applied blob finish. All of the marked gravitating stopper bottles that have been noted by the author of this site were shaped like the bottle to the left F.

However, bottles with this shape have been found with a Hutchinson stopper in place covered later. So unless embossed with the "Gravitating Stopper It is also likely that some of these type bottles originally started out with gravitating stoppers, but since soda water bottles were typically reused for many years, they may have later been used with the new Hutchinson spring stopper.

This style of bottle was actually still being listed in the Illinois Glass Company catalog as late as with the notation that their mold number "88" was specially designed to accept the "Mathews sic Patent Stopper" IGCo. Mold number "88" is listed on the page in the left side of the image.

These bottles, with and without the "Gravitating Stopper By the mids, the Hutchinson stopper in bottles with a somewhat more abrupt shoulder began to dominate the soda bottle market and the gravitating stopper appears to have faded gradually from common use. However, as noted above, gravitating stopper bottles were still being offered as late as , though bottles that conclusively date that late date have not been noted.

Codd's Ball Stopper The Codd ball stopper was by far the most successful of an assortment of internal ball type stoppers for soda bottles patented during the second half of the 19th century. It was first patented in England in with the patents for the most commonly seen form issued in and ; it was patented first in in the United States Munsey ; Goodacre Most of its success was, however, in England or its Commonwealth nations like Canada, India, and Australia.

Reportedly, part of the reason for its lack of success in the U. For an image of a much less successful competitor that also utilized a ball for the closure mechanism, click on Roorbach bottle which shows a Hutchinson type bottle that used the Roorbach ball stopper. The bottles were produced by a method that required the use of an applied finish until well into the 20th century which is long after virtually all other bottle types were being mouth-blown with tooled finishes.

According to one author the mouth-blown bottles were produced as follows: After being mold blown the bottles were sheared at the neck and allowed to cool. Then a glass marble, made from glass of a hardness twice that of the bottle was dropped into it. The bottle was then re-heated and the neck welded on finish applied , so containing the marble Goodacre Eventually fully automatic bottle machines were adapted to produce Codd bottles example pictured to the right.

This type of internal ball closure was self-sealing via a rubber gasket mounted inside the bore of the bottle against which the marble was pushed firmly by the carbonated contents. The contents were accessed by pushing down on the marble to release the pressure after which the marble dropped to the lower part of the neck. Click Codd opener for a picture of a tool used to push down the marble and open Codd bottles. The illustration to the left shows the upper portion of a Codd bottle with the marble in the sealing position inside the bore.

The photo to the right shows a late 20th century, machine-made Codd bottle from India with the gasket in place in the middle of the finish and the marble in the unsealed "resting" position low down in the neck.

During the midth century most of the English machinery to produce Codd bottles was shipped to India where the bottle may still be produced Goodacre Some resemblance I guess? Hutchinson closures followed by the crown closure both covered below were far and away the most popular sealing methods for soda and mineral water in the U. One researcher has, however, tallied 25 or so different Codd bottles that are identifiable as used by American companies spanning the country Graci It is not known how many American soda companies used unembossed Codd bottles with proprietary labels attached, though it likely a very low percentage compared to the Hutchinson and crown closure bottles.

The general date range for the mainland American use of the Codd closure is probably similar to the date range in Hawaii, though it is known that some Codd bottles were used into the early s by some companies in the West. For example, one Western embossed Codd bottle Biggam Bros. Helens, Lancashire, England which was merged out of existence in Fowler ; Whitten A good cut-off date for Codd closures in the U. Worldwide, Codd bottles were used for an immense range of time from invention in the early s to the late 20th century, as indicated by the pictured bottle above which is machine-made and has as base sticker noting it was Made in India.

It was purchased new from an import store around ! Hutchinson and fairly quickly made cork closured soda bottles obsolete.

This was visually portrayed by a humorous s advertisement from the Hutchinson company which portrayed the Hutchinson as a boxer knocking out multiple contenders, all of which were soda bottles with "other" closures.

Hutchinson's "boxing gloves" were the flat end of the stoppers Graci The Hutchinson spring stopper consisted of a rubber gasket that was held between two metal plates which were both attached to a wire spring loop. The closure is shown in the cut-away illustration to the left which is in the sealed position illustration courtesy of the Glass Container Manufacturers Institute.

The contents were accessed by pushing down on the top of the wire spring loop which released the pressure and opened the closure. When pushed down slightly to open, the stopper stayed in place - i. The design of this closure gave rise to a new type of soda bottle - the Hutchinson soda bottle - with its very short neck and sharply defined shoulder which ranged from moderately sloped illustration to the left and photo to the right to almost perpendicular to the neck pictures below.

Though used primarily for soda water, Hutchinson type bottles were on occasion used for beer, primarily east of the Mississippi, as evidenced by the occasional embossed bottle that has a brewing company name on it. There were numerous competing types of internal spring stoppers similar to the Hutchinson - most notable being the "spring swivel stopper" and the "Parkhurst" both of which were almost identical to the Hutchinson - though the "Hutchinson's Patent Spring Stopper" made by W.

The certain Hutchinson closured stopper missing bottle pictured to the right is embossed with W. Note the similarity of this bottle to the gravitating stopper bottle pictured earlier; either of the two closures could have been used in bottles of this shape as noted in the "Gravitating Stopper" discussion above.

Click on the following links for more images of this bottle: The Hutchinson stoppers' main drawback was that it was internal with eventual cleanliness issues raised involved the re-use and cleaning of the bottles. However, the primary "problem" with this closure was the invention and gaining popularity early s of the crown cap - especially as the mechanized era of bottle production ramped up allowing for a more consistent and reliable product.

The crown cap and bottle machines are what really sealed the doom of the Hutchinson; the crown cap is covered later. The tooled blob finish below right; bottle to the left with the Hutchinson stopper in place is on a Mt. The base of this bottle has an "H" marking which is believed to be the mark of the Holt Glass Works , which was destroyed by the April 18th, San Francisco earthquake Toulouse ; Thomas This soda bottle dates from the apex of popularity for this closure type as the crown cap was rapidly making in-roads into the soda and beer closure market in the first decade of the 20th century.

Many used unmarked bottles to which they applied their own cheap labels, although the proprietary embossed Hutchinson soda bottle was actually unlike most other bottle classes more the rule than the exception Fowler pers. True applied finishes on Hutchinson soda bottles date the bottle from about to Applied finishes on Hutchinson bottles are relatively uncommon.

Tooled finish Hutchinson bottles date from the mid to late s to the effective end of production for this style in the mid s, with most bottles dating between the late s and Some references list as the end date which seems unlikely since the Illinois Glass Co. Two extremely unusual machine-made Hutchinson sodas have been reported to the author [Bill Lockhart pers. One example was made by the Owens-Illinois Glass Co. Both bottles are base date coded and are the latest known Hutchinson bottles.

Click on the following links to see photos of the bottle: As a side note, there is some possible dating information related to the subtly varying conformation of blob finishes on Hutchinson sodas. Although suggested for Hawaiian Hutchinson soda bottles, it would have some application elsewhere since all Hutchinson soda bottles used in Hawaii were imported - mostly from the U.

They note that this style was used on Hutchinson soda bottles dating from or after - a date that fits well with the company related history noted earlier. Lightning-Type Closures The Lightning toggle or swing-type closure was previously discussed in the "General Closure Types" section earlier on this page; click General Closure Types to move back to that section for more information.

Besides fruit jars, this closure was fairly common on soda bottles but received its most widespread use on beer bottles.

An illustration of the closure by itself is to the left illustration courtesy of the Glass Container Manufacturers Institute. The Lightning closure was a secure, long lasting stopper and for that reason did and does enjoy popularity. In general, Lightning-type closures were popular on soda and beer bottles between the late s to at least National Prohibition in After that time use was limited on beverage bottles; the crown cap dominated by then.

People being slow to accept change, Lightning-type closures were used well into the 20th century on some beverage bottles. It is not uncommon to find early 20th century crown cap finish soda and beer bottles with Lightning-type closures on them since it usually would work in lieu of a crown cap.

However, by the mid s, the crown cap finish on machine-made bottles dominated all beverage bottles. Lightning-type closures continue to be used in modern times by some beer and soda companies primarily overseas and bottles with this closure are still sold for use by home brewers to bottle beer, cream soda, and root beer. Lighting-type closures used on beverage bottles since the midth century were primarily anchored using dimples in the side of the finish instead of the neck encircling wire circle just below the finish see the discussion in the "General Closure Types" section above.

Baltimore Loop or Bottle Seal This functional and fairly popular closure was patented by William Painter, a Baltimore machine shop foreman, in September of Click Painters Baltimore Loop patent , to view this original patent U.

Painter called it the "Baltimore loop seal" though it was usually referred to simply as the "bottle seal" Riley ; Munsey The closure itself is a plug or disk made of rubber or other flexible material with the bottom surface convex shaped. The disk fit tightly into a groove "reverse taper" circling the inside of the bottle's bore.

Internal pressure from the carbonation pressed against the convex surface resulting in lateral pressure which held the disk firmly in the groove. An imbedded wire shank in the top of the disk was used, in conjunction with a hook or pointed instrument, to pull the seal from the bore of the bottle and access the contents. Thus, the alternative name of "loop seal" for this closure.

Painter produced and provided the tools to glassmakers that formed the reverse taper inside the bottle finishes Riley ; Lief Patent Office , Click Painters Loop Seal Patent April 7, , , to view the latter patent for improvements to the closure. The illustration to the left shows a cut-away view of the bottle seal finish and the actual closure cap illustration courtesy of the Glass Container Manufacturers Institute.

The photo to the right shows a beer bottle finish with the typical "look" of a bottle seal groove within a tooled blob finish. The base of the bottle has the makers mark " S. Based on manufacturing based diagnostic features, this bottle could date anywhere within that range. The bottle seal was considered the first "single use" bottle closure, since it could not be reused - though corks could always be thrown away also Lief It was adopted by the Moxie beverages firm - the first mass marketed soft drink - and used on their bottles for some years in the late 19th century Munsey The bottle seal was used primarily on blob finish, mouth-blown beer bottles and blob finish soda bottles to a very limited degree made from as early as - although much more commonly in the late s to early s - to at least the early s IGCo.

The majority of both types of bottles have tooled finishes; applied finishes using this closure are very uncommon empirical observations.

Finishes that accepted a bottle seal closure show up on beer and soda bottles from all parts of the continental U. Even during its peak period of use, the Lightning-type closures were used much more than the bottle seal on beer bottles and the Hutchinson stopper on soda bottles Lincoln ; Munsey By the early 20th century another of Painter's patent closures would totally eclipse all of the competitor's in the closures world - the crown cap.

For a more complete story on the history and use of the "Baltimore Loop Seal" I'm happy to present the following article which is ONLY available here as a "e-published" work! William Painter's Baltimore Loop Seal. This article is about this late 19th century but used into the s closure type used for beer and some soda bottling and invented by William Painter, who went on to much bigger fame as the originator of the crown cap closure and finish discussed next.

It is available at this link: It was patented by William Painter in , who also patented the Baltimore loop seal discussed above and the holder of hundreds of patents, not all dealing with bottling.

It was called the crown cap because, according to Painter it " gives a crowning and beautiful effect to the bottle " Lief This closure consists of a simple metal cap with a corrugated skirt or flange and a compressible liner originally cork [earliest days to midth century] or sometimes linoleum soaked disks [] and now plastic inside the top.

The typical finish is as shown below which is a specific conformation "bead" upper part on top of a variably tapered lower part or collar, though sometimes there is no collar - just the neck of the bottle. The cap is placed on the crown finish and crimped into locking position with some type of crown capping tool or machine Lief To access the contents of the bottle the still familiar, small, hand bottle opener is used. The crown cap was not an immediate success since it required new bottles, new bottling machinery, and a level of uniformity of bottle manufacture that was just beginning to be possible in the early 20th century.

It was also possibly perceived as being "too good to be true" - the corollary to the human inclination to resist change. The illustration to the right is from a patent that shows one of the tools specifically designed to form and tool a mouth-blown crown cap finish. The dotted outline of a crown finish and upper bottle neck is visible within the "jaws" of the calipers type finishing tool which is otherwise quite typical of the tools used to finish bottles from at least the s until the end of the mouth-blown bottle era.

With the advent of better hand tooling methods in the late s to early s followed by the inherent uniformity of automatic bottles machines in common use by the early to mid s, the crown finish quickly gained supremacy Lief For example, El Paso, TX. Berge noted that the crown finish was universal for carbonated beverages by with complete transition by It appears that no crown finish bottles date prior to the patent date.

In fact, vi rtually all crown finish soda and beer bottles date to after ca. IGCo catalog with just one soda bottle offering.

In the IGCo. Mouth-blown, true applied crown finish closure bottles are very uncommon and then usually of foreign manufacture empirical observations. Mouth-blown, tooled crown finish bottles date from to about , when machine-made manufacture of soda and beer bottles was almost complete in the U.

In Canada, it appears that at least mouth-blown soda bottles with tooled crown finishes were being made until at least the late s Axelson The crown finish pictured to the right is a tooled example that dates from around The following link is to a portion of The Ultimate Beer Cap Page , a website devoted to the crown cap closure: The "PRIOF" closure is actually a finish variation for the crown cap intended to make it easier to remove the cap in that it could be "pried off" with a non-standard opener without breaking the bottle.

One of the last minor changes or variations of the crown closure was the development of the "Priof" method of bottle finish by the Illinois Glass Company. The crown bottle, appearing in the early s, had a projecting ledge below the lip of the crown which assisted the consumer in opening the bottle.

By using the ledge as a point of leverage, one could easily pry off the cap by using a knife, key, coin or any flat piece of metal. One needed only to insert the lever between the ledge and the cap and twist. Although this type of bottle finish was used sporadically through the years, it never became popular enough to dominate the market.

However, its major advertising feature was that it substantially reduced the number of broken and chipped bottles which resulted from the use of various unconventional openers.

The "ledge" is visible in the image just above the "PRIOF" embossing; in fact, the embossing is on the outside face of the ledge. This finish was usually always?

This bottle dates more precisely between and as that was the period in which the "IPG in a triangle" makers mark was used Lockhart et al. Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle: Because of their uncommon use, which translates into the rarity of finding them on historic sites or elsewhere, no additional closures are covered for soda and beer bottles.

For additional information, consult the references noted at the end of the Introduction at the top of this page. A few were used in the U. In modern times, various external screw thread finishes have and continue to be used on both soda mostly plastic now and beer bottles, including the crown cap variation for beer bottles that screws off the bottle for opening. This closure apparently originated in the s Rock Fruit or canning jars as a group have the most plentiful, unique, and interesting array of closures of any group of historic bottles as attested to by the photo to the left photo courtesy of Greg Spurgeon Antiques.

The following is quoted from Dr. Julian Toulouse's exceptional book on the subject - Fruit Jars Toulouse a - and summarizes well the reasons for so much variety: In the list of over eleven hundred names of fruit jars and variations It is the vast variety of sealing methods employed, and the many patents concerning them. There was no one simple seal that functioned without some drawbacks, and even the Mason shoulder-seal jar, which to many is seemingly synonymous with the fruit jar, is now so different from its beginning that only the name remains.

Much of this is due to the limitations of early glass-container manufacture in providing an opening that could be sealed hermetically. It either had to have a ground lip or a pressed lip.

If pressed it could not have a screw-thread or indeed anything except some sort of spring or clamp. If ground, the sealing surface could not be the ground surface since that would leak and contaminate the contents. Many tried to seal on the ground surface, however.

The ways to cope with the ground surface was to straddle with the cap, as in the Mason jar, and seal on the shoulder, or to straddle it with a glass or metal lid, or to form a stopper. Cork was an inferior to largely non-functioning as a closure for canning and processed food products, in the home or commercially.

Jean Pacrette described in The requirements of a glass package are first the air tight sealing which has been first obtained by sealing the jars with corks and tying them with wire so as to prevent their being blown out by the inside pressure while processing. However, during the boiling some air and steam from the inside of the jar forces their way out and while cooling off produces a vacuum, and owing to the porous nature of cork, the air from the outside, not pasteurized, is sucked through the porosity of the cork, gets into the jar causing its contents to be attacked by the germs contained in the said air and soon the decomposition takes place Pacrette as quoted in Bender [].

Because of the sealing problems, there were many hundreds of different closures patented and actually put into production during and after s. Due to the rarity of most of these closures, this section will only cover a few of the particularly common closure types since these are the most likely to be encountered.

For more information on the diverse world of canning jar closures, the following references are recommended see references page: Unfortunately all three books are out of print, but may be available at libraries or on-line from various used book sources.

Wax Seal Cap or Lid This closure method was reportedly first used for local home based food processing in Europe by and in the U. This simple round metal cap closure is associated with the wax seal finish which is typically found as an applied or "pressed on" in fruit jar terminology finish and seems to be found primarily and commonly on earlier fruit jars usually dating from the early s until about An exception to this dating is that several different varieties of groove-ring wax seal "Ball Standard " jars were actually some of the first semi-automatic machine made jars, being first produced in to about Toulouse a; Creswick These latter jars exhibit machine-made diagnostic characteristics; see the machine-made bottles portion of the dating key.

The wax seal finish appears, looking down from the top, to be two round - but parallel - ridges with a groove separating them. The rounded outside edge of the finish slopes down and towards the upper neck of the jar. The finish is easier to visualize than describe - click on the pictures to the left and below right.

This design allowed wax, wax-dipped string, or other sealing compound to be placed into the groove. While canning, a properly sized round metal cap usually tin with a turned down edge or "skirt" was then pressed into the warm wax to seal the jar picture to left. Alternatively, the cap was first placed into the finish, then hot wax poured into the groove to seal. The amber jar pictured above is a ca. The jar finish pictured to the right is on a San Francisco Glass Works California produced quart fruit jar dating from to , though the jars may have been produced as late as the early s by the successor to that company Toulouse ; Creswick ; Hinson Wax seal jars were produced in quantity by scores of different glass companies throughout the U.

Though frequently embossed like the pictured examples, these early type canning jars are more commonly encountered with either base makers mark embossing or without embossing Toulouse a; Creswick This closure was used on the ubiquitous John L. Mason's originated Mason's Patent Nov. Mason's original patent did not cover the cap itself since caps were not a new invention; the patent covered the improved screw threads which gradually vanished towards the top of the finish and the shoulder allowing for a tightening seal and the relatively flat shoulder sealing surface Lief ; Creswick There were many hundreds of different variations and types of Mason style fruit jars and scores of subtle variations in the cap itself spanning a time frame from until the midth century, and in modified form, to the present day Creswick The name Mason is still synonymous with canning jars , i.

The Mason's patent jar design, finish, and closure cap solved several problems inherent with food preservation in glass in the midth century. The gradually vanishing threads were molded along with the rest of the jar essentially "embossed" below the finish rim and just above the almost perpendicular, short shoulder ledge. Molding of the threads with the body produced a relatively consistent threaded surface, though the threads were not the sealing mechanism and some jars are so crude that the cap does not go on very well.

The sealing surface for these types of jars was also not the rim of the finish i. The primitive glass making techniques of the time resulted in the finish rim being too rough and unreliable of place to effect a seal Toulouse a. The ledge shows clearly below the screw threads in the picture to the right. During the period of about , the shoulder seal was phased out and replaced by screw thread jars which were designed with a beaded ledge between the threads and the shoulder which became the sealing surface Toulouse a.

Click Atlas Strong Shoulder Mason finish for a close-up picture of the screw thread finish on a jar that has a typical bead sealing surface - the prominent ridge just below the threads. Click Atlas Strong Shoulder Mason jar to view this entire jar, which dates from the s, with the cap in place Creswick These early caps resulted in the potential for contact between the cap and contents often resulting in a "metallic" taste to the canned product.

This problem was largely solved with Lewis Boyd's patents for a glass liner which were manufactured for insertion into the zinc cap. The following links show the Boyd's patents: March 30th, patent ; May 11, patent ; October 25, patent re-issue. The liner was often - even in the s - called a "porcelain" liner even though virtually all were made of milk glass.

The Boyd's milk glass liner is shown in the picture to the left which is viewed looking down inside the cap. This indicates the lengthy period these type lids were produced, reportedly until World War II when the shortage of zinc forced the complete conversion to the tin plate bands still in use today Brantley It should be noted that the earliest Boyd's liners were reportedly made of colorless glass Roller Other screw cap variations eliminated the top portion of the cap substituting the glass plate or liner which was affixed to the remaining, circular screw-band Lief This is easier to view than explain - click Flaccus Bros.

Fruit Jar to see an example of this type of screw-band and milk glass lid combination closure on a mouth-blown jar that dates from the s or early s. Modern fruit jars still use a metal screw-band which holds down a thin metal - not glass - lid.

The difference with more modern midth century on canning jars is that the sealing surface is now the rim top surface of the finish not the shoulder or a bead rim. This screw-thread and cap closure combination was not perfect, but had one major advantage over most other canning jars - the jars were some of the easiest and cheap to produce and sell. To quote Toulouse, " A glass company could get into the business of making Mason jars with a mold and a grinding wheel, and did not have to concern itself with supplying zinc caps; it could undersell any fruit jar on the market because of its simplicity; its lids were reusable and replacements were readily available.

Many different glass companies also produced the zinc and glass liner caps giving a variety of embossing possible on these liners Lief The milk glass liners, and often the lids themselves, are very commonly found on historic sites anywhere that home canning took place which was essentially everywhere, including cities were urban dwellers would can produce when in season and cheap. Since these lids were made for at least 60 or 70 years, there are no specific dating opportunities associated with them unless they have some type of makers markings like the example pictured above.

The lids were also used for many years and not discarded until worn out, rusted, or the liner broken, further diminishing any utility for dating a site because of deposition lag problems.

All Lightning-type closures are similar in the way the toggle mechanism works to clamp and seal the bottle or jar. If the lid were attached to the bail there would be no way to move it totally away from the bore of the jar to access the contents Toulouse a. Instead, the jar lid is held in position by centering the bail in a groove or between two raised dots in the center of the lid.

The Lightning-type closure gave rise to the very popular jar of the same name - the Lightning fruit jar pictured to the left which dates This and numerous other jars used this closure type in various forms between about and up until the midth century.

The popularity of this type jar stemmed from a combination of ease of use and the fact that it solved one of the problems of the Mason's cap in that only inert glass could contact the contents of the jar removing the possibility of the metallic taste which was the bane of Mason jars Toulouse a.

As a side note, some historians believe that the use of the term "white lightning" for moonshine stems from the use of lighting closured jars to by bootleggers to bottle their product Hinson In the 20th century, Lightning-type closures for canning jars had the sealing surface on a narrow flared bead just below the rim instead of the broad chunky band like on the Lightning jar.

The newer Lightning-type closures also dispensed with the tie wire that encircled the neck and molded dimples into opposite sides of the neck to hold the ends of the lever wire Creswick The jar pictured to the right is a pint sized Ball Ideal that has both these characteristics - a narrow flared bead sealing surface just below the glass lid and dimples to hold the ends of the lever wires i.

This style of closure was patented in and made into the s Toulouse a. The pictured jar is likely from the earlier end of that manufacturing date range, i. Click on the picture to the left to see a larger version which illustrates the parts of this closure type. To quote Toulouse a , "The use of the thumbscrew as a device to tighten the seal on the fruit jar was a matter of a quick flurry, and then virtual disappearance, except for the cumbersome Van Vliet , and the revival as a museum jar by Whitall-Tatum.

The use of glass instead of metal would have been a natural evolution from the wax sealers metal cap to avoid imparting a metallic taste to the contents of the jar. The picture below shows the finish on the Millville jar without the lid and clamp in place. A comparison of this finish with the wax seal finish pictured above shows the close similarity. If just the broken off finish of a Millville jar were to be found on an historic site, it would be impossible to say whether the original closure was a wax sealed tin lid or a thumbscrew and glass lid.

It was once thought that the actual patent date was November 4, by T. However, patent records do indeed show that John M. Whitall was granted a patent on June 18th, incorrectly noted as "Jan.

The lid or stopper closure on the John Moore jars fit on a ledge inside the bore of the bottle and thus the Moore jar finishes do not have the parallel ridges on or within the finish like the Millville Atmospheric and typical wax sealer jars.

The Van Vliet jars had a glass cap that was shallowly cup shaped and fit over and around the outside of the finish. Other thumbscrew and stopper types like the Moore's jars date from the s or early s and the unusual Van Vliet's from the s Creswell After that time, this style of closure was rarely used since the external "Mason's" screw-thread and Lightning type closures dominated, along with a few others - like the cam lever and lid jars discussed next.

All of these general types worked via the action of a lever handle to apply pressure in some fashion to hold the lid tightly against the sealing surface; see Toulouse a The Collectors' Manual to Fruit Jars book for more information. The first lever type patents for canning jar closures were issued in the early s with various others issued into the early 20th century.

One of the most common of the lever type jars were the cam lever and lid closured Globe jars; most other lever based closure jars are uncommon. An exception were the Safety Valve jars which utilized a very different looking than the Globe cam lever type closure patented in and experienced some longevity from patenting mouth-blown into the machine-made era until about Toulouse a; Creswick The Globe jar closure utilized a glass lid with a hemispherical seat that matched up to a rounded cam on the end of the short lever which was attached to a metal moveable bail.

Swinging the bail over the center of lid, a user pressed down on the lever handle which applied pressure to the lid sealing it against a rubber gasket that sat on the ledge below the rim see image to the right although no gasket is in place.

Click Patent , to view the Hemingray patent which illustrates and describes the Globe closure.

Watch breaking news videos, viral videos and original video clips on www.instylelife.com A. GENERAL CLOSURE TYPES. This section covers closures that were used on a wide array of bottle types, i.e., closures which are generally not identified with only one or two types or classes of bottles. Inherently these closure types saw wide use for many types of bottles - implying higher than usual functionality - and because of that also experienced a long time span of use. In Memoriam. Lawrence R. Marryott Sr., age 88, passed away on Monday, Oct. 8, at his home with his family at his side.A veteran of the Korean War, he was honorably discharged from the U.S. Air Force. He began his career in Mortgage Banking in Toledo, then moved to Columbus in and opened a branch office of Toledo Home Mortgages as Vice President, originating and processing home.